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Experts on Earth

Earth (also the world[n 5], in GreekΓαῖα Gaia,[n 6] or in LatinTerra[26]) is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical objectknown to harbor life. The earliest life on Earth arose at least 3.5 billion years ago.[27][28][29] Earlier physical evidences of life include graphite, a biogenic substance, in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in southwestern Greenland,[30] as well as, "remains of biotic life" found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.[31][32] Earth's biodiversity has expanded continually except when interrupted by mass extinctions.[33] Although scholars estimate that over 99 percent of all species of life (over five billion)[34]that ever lived on Earth are extinct,[35][36] there are still an estimated 10–14 million extant species,[37][38] of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.[39] Over 7.3 billion humans[40]live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Earth's human population is divided among about two hundred sovereign states which interact through diplomacy, conflict, travel, trade and communication media.

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Name Missions & Mission Experience Targets Techniques Major Facilities & Instrument Development

Oleg Abramov
Europa Clipper ** Calibration/Test planning, Instrument Co-Investigator, Mission science team, Science operations Earth, Europa, Mars, Moon Astrobiology, Impacts, Remote sensing, Thermal modeling Cameras, Spectrometers

Natalia Artemieva
Earth, Moon, Titan Numerical modeling

Maria Banks
LRO, MESSENGER, MRO, New Horizons, Phoenix Mars Lander ** Data archive, Data validation, Instrument operations, Mission operations, Mission science team, Science operations Charon, Earth, Europa, Mars, Mercury, Moon, Phobos, Pluto, Venus Climate, Crater Counting, Education/Public Outreach, Field Work, Geology, Geomorphology, Impacts, Mapping, Radar, Remote sensing, Tectonics Cameras

Mark Bishop
Earth, Mars, Titan Remote sensing, Volcanism, Geology, Education/Public Outreach, Geomorphology

Sanlyn Buxner
LRO Earth, Meteorites, Moon Education/Public Outreach

Karen Cahill
Mars Odyssey, MER, MESSENGER, MRO ** Mission science team Asteroids, Earth, Mars, Mercury, Meteorites, Moon Education/Public Outreach, Field Work, Geology, Mapping, Mineralogy, Petrology, Remote sensing, Spectroscopy, Thermal Emission Spectroscopy, Volcanism Imaging spectrometers, Spectrometers

Mary Chapman
Earth, Mars Mapping, Volcanism

Frank Chuang
Galileo, LRO, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, MRO ** Mission science team Callisto, Earth, Europa, Ganymede, Icy satellites, Io, Mars, Moon Crater Counting, Geology, Geomorphology, Impacts, Mapping, Remote sensing, Volcanism

Roger Clark
Cassini, Chandrayaan 1 (India), Europa Clipper, Galileo, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Observer, MRO ** Instrument Co-Investigator, Mission Co-Investigator Asteroids, Ceres, Comets, Dwarf planets, Earth, Exoplanets, Icy satellites, Interplanetary Dust, Io, Jupiter, Kuiper Belt, Mars, Mercury, Moon, Neptune, Planetary rings, Pluto, Saturn, Small satellites, Titan, Uranus, Venus, Vesta Space-based observing, Spectroscopy, Remote sensing, Photometry, Numerical modeling, Geology, Ground-based observing, Mineralogy, Mapping

David Crown
Dawn, Mars Odyssey, MRO Ceres, Dwarf planets, Earth, Icy satellites, Io, Mars, Moon, Venus Crater Counting, Education/Public Outreach, Field Work, Geology, Geomorphology, Mapping, Radar, Remote sensing, Tectonics, Volcanism

Darby Dyar
MSL Earth, Mars, Mercury, Moon, Venus Spectroscopy, Remote sensing, Petrology, Geology, Education/Public Outreach, Mineralogy, Astrobiology

Robert Gaskell
Cassini, Dawn, MESSENGER, OSIRIS-REx, Rosetta, Voyager Asteroids, Comets, Earth, Icy satellites, Io, Mars, Mercury, Moon, Small satellites, Vesta Shape modeling

Rebecca Ghent
LRO, Mars 2020, OSIRIS-REx Asteroids, Earth, Mars, Mercury, Moon, Venus Remote sensing, Radar, Tectonics, Volcanism, Numerical modeling, Geology, Ground-based observing, Mapping

David Grinspoon
MSL, New Horizons Earth, Exoplanets, Icy satellites, Mars, Pluto, Venus Education/Public Outreach, Astrobiology

Vicki Hansen
Earth, Venus Education/Public Outreach, Field Work, Geology, Geomorphology, Mapping, Optical Microscopy, Petrology, Radar, Remote sensing, Tectonics

Bill Hartmann
Mariner 9 Asteroids, Comets, Earth, Mars, Meteorites, Moon, Small satellites Crater Counting, Education/Public Outreach, Ground-based observing, Volcanism

Catherine Johnson
MESSENGER, OSIRIS-REx Asteroids, Earth, Mars, Mercury, Moon, Small satellites, Venus Tectonics, Volcanism, Education/Public Outreach, Magnetospherics

Andrea Jones
LRO, MSL Earth, Mars, Moon Geology, Education/Public Outreach

Kim Kuhlman
GENESIS, Phoenix Mars Lander ** Mission science team Asteroids, Earth, Mars, Moon, Small satellites, Solar particles/Solar wind Astrobiology, Atom Probe Tomography, Atomic Force Microscopy, Education/Public Outreach, Field Work, Focused Ion Beam, Gamma-ray spectroscopy, Geology, Geomorphology, Mass spectroscopy, Mineralogy, Neutron detectors, Numerical modeling, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, Space-based observing, Spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy Cameras

Melissa Lane
Mars Odyssey Earth, Mars Spectroscopy, Remote sensing, Geology, Geomorphology, Mineralogy, Mapping

Kristin Lawrence
Earth, Mars, Moon

Jim McElwaine
Asteroids, Ceres, Comets, Earth, Icy satellites, Mars, Moon, Planetary rings, Pluto, Small satellites, Titan, Vesta Shape modeling, Radar, Numerical modeling, Geomorphology

Jeff Morgenthaler
GALEX, Sounding Rockets Comets, Earth, Europa, Gas giants, Io, Io torus, Jupiter, Solar particles/Solar wind Aeronomy, Astrometry, Atmospheres, Calorimetry, Ground-based observing, Photometry, Space-based observing, Spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy Kitt Peak ** Imaging spectrometers, Spectrometers, X-ray spectrometers

Catherine Neish
Cassini, Chandrayaan 1 (India), LRO ** Data archive, Data validation, Instrument operations, Mission science team, Science operations Earth, Icy satellites, Mercury, Moon, Titan, Venus Field Work, Geology, Geomorphology, Impacts, Radar, Remote sensing, Volcanism

Dorothy Oehler
MSL ** Mission science team, Science operations Earth, Mars Astrobiology, Focused Ion Beam, Geology, Geomorphology, Mapping, Optical Microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy

Matthew Perry
MRO Earth, Mars Education/Public Outreach, Field Work, Geology, Geomorphology, Numerical modeling, Planetary Interiors, Radar, Tectonics, Thermal modeling

Thomas Platz
Dawn Ceres, Earth, Mars, Moon Remote sensing, Petrology, Volcanism, Geology, Crater Counting, Geomorphology, Mapping

Thomas Prettyman
Dawn, Lunar Prospector, Mars Odyssey ** Calibration/Test planning, Data archive, Data validation, Electronics design, Flight Software, Instrument operations, Instrument PI, Mission Co-Investigator, Mission science team, Requirements generation and flow down Asteroids, Ceres, Comets, Dwarf planets, Earth, Mars, Mercury, Meteorites, Moon, Small satellites, Venus, Vesta Education/Public Outreach, Geology, Mapping, Neutron detectors, Numerical modeling, Remote sensing, Shape modeling, Space-based observing

Nathaniel Putzig
Mars Express (ESA), Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Insight, Mars Odyssey, MER, MRO, MSL, Phoenix Mars Lander ** Data archive, Data validation, Deputy Instrument PI, Instrument Co-Investigator, Instrument operations, Mission Co-Investigator, Mission operations, Mission science team, Science operations Earth, Mars Climate, Field Work, Geology, Geomorphology, Mapping, Numerical modeling, Planetary Interiors, Radar, Remote sensing, Tectonics, Thermal Emission Spectroscopy, Thermal modeling, Volcanism Cameras, Imaging spectrometers, Spectrometers

Norbert Schorghofer
Dawn ** Mission science team Ceres, Earth, Mars, Moon Astrobiology, Climate, Field Work, Geomorphology, Numerical modeling

Amy Shaw
MER, MRO, OSIRIS-REx Asteroids, Earth, Mars, Small satellites Space-based observing, Spectroscopy, Remote sensing, Photometry, Numerical modeling, Geology, Education/Public Outreach, Geomorphology, Mineralogy, Mapping

Matthew Staid
Chandrayaan 1 (India) Earth, Moon Geology, Mapping, Mineralogy, Photometry, Remote sensing, Spectroscopy, Volcanism

Michelle Thomsen
Cassini ** Instrument Co-Investigator Earth, Jupiter, Saturn Plasma spectrometers

Robert Tokar
Cassini, Mars Odyssey, MSL, Voyager Earth, Gas giants, Icy satellites, Interplanetary Dust, Io, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Solar particles/Solar wind Space-based observing, Spectroscopy, Remote sensing, Numerical modeling, Neutron detectors, Magnetospherics Gamma-ray detectors, Mass spectrometers, Neutron detectors, Plasma spectrometers

Bryan Travis
Asteroids, Ceres, Earth, Icy satellites, Mars Space-based observing, Remote sensing, Numerical modeling, Mineralogy, Astrobiology

David Vaniman
MSL Earth, Mars, Moon Petrology, Volcanism, Geology, Ground-based observing, Mineralogy, Mapping

John Weirich
OSIRIS-REx Asteroids, Comets, Earth, Moon, Small satellites Shape modeling, Geology, Mineralogy

Rebecca Williams
Mars Odyssey, MRO, MSL Earth, Mars Remote sensing, Geology, Geomorphology, Ground-based observing, Mapping

Shawn Wright
MER Earth, Mars, Meteorites Geology, Mineralogy, Remote sensing

Aileen Yingst
Dawn, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander, MER, MSL ** Calibration/Test planning, Deputy Instrument PI, Instrument Co-Investigator, Instrument operations, Mission operations, Mission science team, Requirements generation and flow down, Science operations Ceres, Earth, Mars, Moon, Vesta Education/Public Outreach, Geology, Geomorphology, Mapping, Remote sensing, Spectroscopy, Volcanism Cameras

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